Archives for category: The Industrial Revolution

Intro:

In the first part of the 1800s, artists mainly use the ideas of freedom, rights of individuals, and an idealized view of history in their art. However, after the revolution in 1848, artists began to have a “realistic” view of the world. This view was focused on the rich and their selfish interests vs. the ordinary people who struggled. Photography was invented at this time and became a way to record and investigate this struggle.

  • The Romantic Movement

    By the end of the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas grew into romanticism. This new movement showed the deep interest in nature and in the thoughts of individuals. These romantic idealists were the opposite of many Enlightenment thinkers. The people changed from reason to emotion, society to nature. Nationalism also grew, inspiring romantic imagination. George Gordon and Lord Byron were leading poets at the time who fought for Greece’s freedom.

    • The Ideas of Romanticism
      • Emotion was key in romanticism. However, romantics also believed in inner feelings/emotions, focus on the mysterious and grotesque, beauty of nature, a simpler and nobler past, glorified heroes, cherished folk traditions, valued the common person, and promoted radical change and democracy.
    • Romanticism in Literature
      • Poetry, music, and painting were heavily influenced as they could capture the emotion of romanticism. Poetry was considered the highest form of expression. William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge were British romantic poets who honored nature. Other English poets such as Lord Byron, Shelley, and John Keats wrote poems about rebellious heroes, love, and the mystery and beauty of nature. Many British poets lived miserable and short lives. Byron died at age 36, Shelley died at 29.
      • Germany had one of the most famous and earliest writers. In 1774, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe published The Sorrows of Young Werther. This novel was about a young man with a hopeless love, leading to his suicide. Germany also produced works such as the Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm’s collection of fairy tales and dictionary and grammar of the German language. These literary works celebrated the German spirit.
      • Victor Hugo was the leader of French romantics. His works showed the romantic fascination with history and individuals. Les Miserables and The Hunchback of Notre Dame both involve individuals against society.
    • The Gothic Novel
      • Gothic horror stories became popular, taking place in medieval Gothic castles. These castles were full of supernatural events. Mary Shelley wrote one of the most successful Gothic novel: Frankenstein, a tale about a monster created from body parts.
    • Composers Emphasize Emotion
      • Emotion was the most important factor in romantic music. The romantic composers were less formal and instead celebrated heroism and national pride with a new form of expression.
      • Musicians became popular heroes as music became an important part of life. Composers such as Franz Liszt had earnings similar to modern rock stars.
      • One of the greatest and first Romantic composers was Ludwig van Beethoven. His works went from classical music to romantic compositions. His Ninth Symphony is romantic, celebrating freedom, dignity, and triumph of human spirits.
      • Other romantic composers also went for their audiences hearts and souls. Robert Schumann, Felix Mendelssohn, and Frederic Chopin were all romantic composers. Giuseppe Verdi and Richard Wagner made European opera into a theatrical high point.
  • The Shift to Realism in the Arts

    In the 19th century, the rapid industrialization affected everyone. The growing number of workers and harsh life made the romantics’ dreams seem impossible. Realism took over as it showed life as it was. Realist paintings showed the political importance of the working class. The paintings and novels were the most suitable for describing the suffering of working life.

    • Photographers Capture Reality
      • Realists painters and writers detailed the lives of people. However, these idiots could not beat the photographers. The first photographs – daguerreotypes, were invented by Louis Daguerre. These images were startlingly real and gained him worldwide fame.
      • William Talbot created a light-sensitive paper that was used to create negatives. The advantage was that many prints could be created from one paper negative. The Talbot process helped photos be reproduced in the media. The mass distribution created a large audience. Photography was the art of the industrial age with scientific, mechanical, and mass-produced features.
    • Writers Study Society
      • Literary realism was popular in France with people such as Honore de Balzac and Emile Zola. Balzac wrote almost 100 novels named The Human Comedy. These novels describe a struggle for power in French society. Zola’s novels described the miseries of French workers. This revelation shocked readers, promoting reforms of working conditions. Famous English realist Charles Dickens created characters and scenes of London’s poor. The book, Little Dorrit, describes the life of a working person as monotony in a gloomy neighborhood.
  • Impressionists React Against Realism

    Starting in the 1860s, some painters in Paris reacted, creating impressionism. Their style showed their impression of a moment in time. These impressionists used pure, shimmering color to capture a moment.

    • Life in the Moment
      • Impressionists had a more positive view than the realists. They showed shop clerks and other workers enjoying themselves in cafes. They painted performers and glorified the delights of life. Claude Monet, Edgar Degas, and Renoir were leaders in this impressionist movement.
      • The composers created impressions of mood and atmosphere using different instrumentation, tone, and musical structures. The could create mental pictures of flashing lights and nature. French composers Maurice Ravel and Claude Debussy were the most important members of the musical impressionism movement. Changes in politics, society, art, and intellectual movements was significant in the 19th century. The cause of change was industrialization.
  • Skilled vs. Unskilled Workers
    • Skilled labor replaced
      • Prior to revolution, everyone was skilled at their own jobs
        • Everyone made unique products
      • The assembly line replaced skilled labor
        • Workers only need to do one thing
        • Cheaper labor
    • Seasonal Help (supply and demand)
      • Based completely on economy
    • Migration to Urban Areas
      • Cheaper labor
      • Hard to find jobs
      • Bad living conditions
  • Wealth Gap

    – over 80% of new money go to top 5% of people

    • Social Darwinism
      • Educated – only talented should have the money
    • Maintaining Status Quo
      • Rich want to stay rich.
      • Why bother helping poor?
  • Family Life
    • Hardship
      • Separated, dysfunctional
      • Spend less time together, more time working
    • Discipline & Education
      • Better education = better job
    • Prior to the Industrial Revolution:
      • Family businesses
      • Family time (farms, etc)
    • Children save up money, move out once enough is saved up
      • People used to stay with their family
      • Now, children start their own lives
  • Labor Unionism
    • Government Opposition
      • The labor unions seem threating, similar to small rebellions
      • Government and wealthy want to keep their money
      • Fear of unions “breaking down the system”
    • Class Struggle
      • Society is not happy with progress
  • Impact on Society
    • Crime in cities
      • Unemployment
      • Dysfunctional families
    • Disease
      • Bad conditions
      • Slums
    • Law Enforcement
      • More prominent
      • Growing need
      • Prisons, police
  • Urbanization
    • Child deaths
      • Accidents
      • Malnutrition
      • High mortality rates
    • Growing Middle Class -> more rights and reform
      • Reforms
      • Lower class moves up
  • Industrialization Spreads
    • Great Britain
      • Starts first
      • Has all 3 factors of production (resources, labor, capital)
    • Shifts in Power
      • Industrialization = Rich
      • Rich = Power
    • Disparity
      • Some nations very wealthy, others very poor

Intro:

Britain’s perfect position, financial systems, political stability, and natural resources sparked industrialization. The British merchants built the first factories. Then, the Industrial Revolution spread to the United States and continental Europe. Countries that have similar conditions also industrialized.

  • Industrial Development in the United States

    The United States had similar resources to Britain. America had fast rivers, natural coal and iron ore, and a supply of laborers. During the War of 1812, America was blocked off by the British from international trade. This blockade led to the development of independent industries, industries that would manufacture the goods the US could not import.

    • Industrialization in the United States
      • The industrialization in the United States also started with the textile industry. Britain had forbidden their engineers from sharing their secrets. However, a British mill worker named Samuel Slater emigrated to the US. He created a spinning machine from memory and a partial design. The next year, Moses Brown opened a factory to house the machines. This Pawtucket factory produced the thread used in finished cloth.
      • In 1813, Francis Lowell from Boston and four other investors mechanized every stage in making cloth. They created a weaving factory in Waltham which made them so much money they could make another operation in Massachusetts. After Lowell’s death, the other partners named a town after him. Lowell, Massachusetts became a manufacturing center and model for other towns.
      • Thousands of women went to work as mill girls in factories. There, they would have wages and independence. However, they were closely watched and worked 12 hours a day, 6 days a week. However, it was still lucrative job compared to being a servant.
      • Textiles were first but clothing and shoemaking also became mechanized. In the northeast, skilled workers and farmers began working in factories in towns and cities such as Waltham, Lowell, and Lawrence. (Massachusetts)
    • Later Expansion of U.S. Industry
      • The Northeast expanded greatly in the 1800s. Even so, the United States remained agricultural until 1865 when the Civil War ended. Then, the country boomed as natural resources and a burst of inventions led to more manufactured goods. The growing population used nthese goods.
      • Similar to Britain, railroads also influenced America’s industrialization. Cities such as Chicago and Minneapolis expanded rapidly due to their location along railroad lines. Chicago’s stockyards and Minneapolis’s grain industry prospered by selling and shipping products. The railroads were also profitable, with large companies controlling 2/3 of the national railroads. All kinds of businesses joined together like the railroads, small companies could merge and grow.
    • The Rise of Corporations
      • Large businesses needed a lot of money to get started. Entrepreneurs came up with “stock”, or rights of ownership. This made people who bought stock partial owners of these corporations. A corporation is a business owned by stockholders who share in profits but are not responsible for debts. Corporations could now raise large amounts of money to invest in industrial equipment.
      • By the late 1800s, large corporations such as Standard Oil (Rockefeller) and Carnegie Steel Company (Andrew Carnegie) formed. They began to create a monopoly on their industry so they could reduce cost of producing goods and charge high prices on their products. The workers would earn low wages for long hours while stockholders and corporate leaders make fortunes.
  • Continental Europe Industrializes

    Parts of Continental Europe also wanted to adopt the “British miracle”. However, the French Revolution, Napoleonic wars, etc. had slowed trade, communication and caused economic trouble. This led to the other European countries industrializing later than Britain.

    • Beginnings in Belgium
      • Belgium was first to adopt British technologies. Belgium had iron ore, coal, and waterways. British immigrants played a key role in jump starting the industrialization.
      • Samuel Slater smuggled the spinning machine to the US. William Cockerill brought his to Belgium in 1799. These secret plans allowed them to build spinning machinery. His son, John, built an enormous industry empire producing steam engines and locomotives. These machines were the most up-to-date as more British workers came to work with Cockerill.
      • Several other British workers founded their own companies.
    • Germany Industrializes
      • Germany was politically weak, as economic isolation and scattered resources prevented nationwide industrialization. However, small pockets of industrialization appeared in the coal-rich Ruhr Valley of west-central Germany. The Germans began to copy the British model in 1835, importing British equipment and personnel. German manufacturers also sent their children to England to learn management skills.
      • Germany also built railroads linking its manufacturing cities like Frankfort to natural resources. The newfound economic strength allowed it to develop into a military power. Germany became both an industrial and military giant.
    • Expansion Elsewhere in Europe
      • Industrialization in the rest of Europe also started in small patches. These pockets of industrialization were close to agriculture and other resources. Bohemia had a spinning industry, Catalonia has cotton, Italy had silk/textiles, and serfs ran factories in Moscow and St. Petersburg.
      • France’s industrial growth occurred in 1830. The French industry was better measured and controlled, therefore, there were no major social-economic issues like in other nations. A national market for French products developed in 1850 when the government constructed railroads.
      • Many other European countries did not industrialize. They were limited by the social structure, geography, and more. In Austria-Hungary, and Spain, transportation was an obstacle. The Austrian mountains blocked railroad builders and Spain had no roads or canals
  • The Impact of Industrialization

    The Industrial Revolution increase competition between industrialized nations and less-developed nations.

    • Rise of Global Inequality
      • Industrialization widened the wealth gap between industrialized and non-industrialized countries. However, their economies were still tied together as industrial countries needed raw materials from other lands. Also, the industrialized countries saw the poor countries as new markets.
      • Britain began exploiting oversea colonies. Other countries such the US, Russia, and Japan followed the lead and seized colonies for resources. This imperialism gave more power and wealth to already wealthy nations. This was born out of the need to supply factories with resources and for developing new markets.
    • Transformation of Society
      • From 1700 to 1900, revolutions in agriculture, production, transportation, and communication changed people’s lives in Western Europe and the US. Industrial gave Europe economic power. Meanwhile, Asia and Africa were small agricultural societies. Despite hardships, the middle class created many opportunities for education and democracy. This lead to social reform.

Intro:

The Industrial Revolution changed every part of live in Britain. However, it was not all good, as the machine production conditions caused suffering. However, the rapid industrialization brought jobs. Another downside was that working conditions were unhealthy, water and air were polluted, and there was child labor. This lead to more class tensions between the working and middle classes.

  • Industrialization Changes Life

    The speed of industrialization keep accelerating. Starting from the 1800s, people could get higher wages in factories than farms. More people moved and began to purchase heating for their homes. They could also dine on Scottish beef. The got better clothes from power looms in England’s cities. Cities swell with job seekers.

    • Industrial Cities Rise
      • Most Europeans had lived in rural areas. However, many people migrated toward cities, as a result of the factory system. The manufacturing process was concentrated, attracting workers. Many urban areas doubled or even quadrupled. This urbanization period was city building and movement of people.
      • These factories were constructed together in groups as they needed water and coal to run. These industrial centers grew in coal-rich areas such as Wales and the Clyde River in Scotland. However, the largest such area appeared in England.
      • Britain’s capital, London, was the most important city with a population of around 1 million in 1800. Its population exploded, providing a huge pool of labor and a market for the industry. London was Europe’s largest city, with twice as many people as Paris. Newer cities challenged its leadership. Birmingham and Sheffield were iron-smelting centers, Leeds and Manchester dominated textile manufacturing. Manchester’s portside location made it the center of the cotton industry. The Manchester had rapid growth from 45000 in 1760 to 300000 in 1850.
    • Living Conditions
      • The rapid growth of cities led to a lack of planning. The buildings were unsanitary and unsafe. Also, they lacked adequate housing, education, and police for the cities coming in from the countryside. The streets had no drains, garbage was on the street, and workers live in dark dirty shelters. Sickness spread rapidly and epidemics of cholera swept through the slums. In 1842, the average lifespan in a city was 17 years for the working class people, in comparison to 38 in a rural area.
      • Elizabeth Gaskell’s Mary Barton (1848) accurately portrays the urban life experienced at the time. However, not everyone was miserable. Rich merchants and factory owners had luxurious homes in suburbs.
    • Working Condition
      • The factory owners wanted to increase production. They did this by forcing workers to work 14 hours a day, 6 days a week. The work was continuous throughout the year, unlike the farm.
      • Industry was also dangerous for workers. Badly lit factories combined with hazardous machinery often injured workers. A boiler could explode, a drive belt could catch an arm. If injured, no one would provide aid. The worst conditions were in the coal mines. The frequent accidents, moist conditions, and coal dust made the miner life span 10 years shorter than other industry workers. Many women and children were used in the mining industry as they are the cheapest.
  • Class Tensions Grow

    Even though poverty persisted in the working classes, the Industrial Revolution created huge wealth in the nation. Most of this money was to the factory owners, shippers, and merchants. They were part of a growing middle class, made up of skilled workers, professionals, businesspeople, and wealthy farmers.

    • The Middle Class
      • This new class changed the structure of Britain. Now, some factory owners, merchants, and bankers became wealthier than the landowners and aristocrats. However, the landowners still looked down at the “vulgar” business world. Only in the 1800s were the entrepreneurs considered equals.
      • The larger middle class emerged slowly. The upper class was government employees, doctors, lawyers, managers, mines, and shops. The lower middle class was skilled workers and factory overseers. They had a comfortable living.
    • The Working Class
      • The laborers saw no improvement. Their jobs were being replaced by machines. They were so frustrated that some destroyed the machines built that were putting them out of work.
      • One such group was the Luddites. Named after Ned Ludd, a worker, the Luddites attacked factories in England, destroying machinery. Other workers rioted because of living and working conditions.
  • Positive Effects of the Industrial Revolution

    Despite the issues, the Industrial Revolution had many positive effects. It created jobs, contributed to the wealth of the nation, fostered innovations, increased production of goods, and raised living standards. Finally, it gave people hope to improve.

    The Industrial Revolution also produced healthier diets, better housing, and cheaper clothing. The demand for engineers and professionals also expanded educational opportunities. The middle and upper classes prospered greatly. It took workers longer but their lives also improved as they won higher wages, shorter hours, and better conditions after joining into labor unions.

    • Long-Term Effects
      • Long term effects include the cheap consumer goods, improved living and working conditions, and better economies.
      • These successes were obvious in Manchester in the 1800s.
  • Case Study: Manchester
    • Manchester was a unique town as it had advantages such as access to water, supply of labor, and access to an outlet at sea (Liverpool)
    • This industrial giant was wealthy, however, the unplanned Industrial Revolution made it unhealthy. The business owners were proud of their successes.
    • The workers had to work in terrible conditions, with children as young as six joining the workforce.
    • The owners would beat children to keep children awake. These children repaired threads, etc. The dangerous machines injured many.
    • The first Factory Act passed in 1819 and restricted working age and hours. However, young children still did heavy work in Manchester’s factories.
    • The industry polluted nature, as coal, dies and other wastes poisoned the air and water.
  • Agricultural Revolution
    • Starts with wealthy landowners
      • Buy up small farmer’s land
      • Experiment & invest
        • Seed drill (1701)
        • Crop rotation (wheat -> turnips -> barley -> clover)
        • Selective breeding (1700), limiting reproduction to best sheep
    • Enclosure
      • Split land up for experimenting
    • Small Farmers Leave
      • Wealthy landowners force farmers out (farmers either move to city or become tenant farmers)
        • Tenant farmers work for the owner
    • Economy and Agriculture
      • Economy depends on agriculture
  • Causes of Industrialization
    • Land, Labor, and Capital
      • 3 factors of production
      • Britain had all three: resources, people, and money
    • Growing Population
      • Lower wages as more labor available
      • Food production must catch up to population
      • Widening gap between rich and poor
    • Natural Resources
      • Britain has: water, iron ore, coal
    • Investment Capital
      • Entrepreneurs invest in machines
        • Produce more
    • Transportation and Communication
      • Phones, steam engine, steam ship, locomotive
    • New Markets
      • People buy new products
    • Government Support
      • Limited involvement
      • Laissez-faire economy (government is involved as little as possible)
  • First Industrial Revolution (1700s)
    • Textile Industry
      • Flying shuttle (weaving)
      • Spinning jenny (spinning)
      • First mechanized industry
    • Steam Power
      • James Watt
      • Transportation of Materials and People
    • Bessemer Process
      • Iron -> Steel
      • Steel is stronger, suitable for heavy machinery
  • Second Industrial Revolution
    • Heavy Machinery
      • Internal Combustion Engine
        • Automobiles
      • Steamships
      • Railways, Airplanes
      • Boosts transportation
        • Easier and cheaper transport of goods
        • More jobs
    • Electricity
      • Lights = longer work hours
    • Assembly Line
      • Every person has role
      • Interchangeable parts and skills
      • Children also work, no school or education
  • Impact of Industrial Revolution
    • Need for Labor -> Need for Technology
    • Domestic System -> Factory
      • Farm -> City
  • Results
    • Migration to urban life
    • Discontent workers with low wages and not enough jobs
    • Growing literacy and education rates
    • Middle & lower classes grow

Intro:

New governments developed in the United States, France, and Latin America. However, a new revolution began to change the way people worked. The Industrial Revolution was the increase of machine-made goods, starting in England in the 1700s. Before this revolution, people made textiles by hand. Now, machines began to take over, and spread from England to Continental Europe and North America.

  • Industrial Revolution Begins in Britain

    Small farms used to cover England’s landscape in 1700s. However, wealthy landowners bought much of the land, using improved farming methods and innovations to start an agricultural revolution.

    • The Agricultural Revolution Paves the Way
      • Wealthy landowners fenced off their land, creating large fields. The landowners had so much land they could experiment with seeding and harvesting methods.
      • This enclosure method encouraged landowners to experiment and also forced small farmers to give up and farming and move to the cities.
      • Jethro Tull was a scientific farmer who noticed that scattering seed across the ground was a waste. He designed a seed drill in 1701 to sow seeds in neat rows at set depths. This resulted in a larger portion of the seeds taking root, increasing yields.
    • Rotating Crops
      • Crop rotation was one of the most effective techniques. This improved on the medieval three-field system – a farmer would plant wheat one year, turnips the next, then barley and clover.
      • Livestock breeders also innovated. In 1700, Robert Bakewell increased his mutton (sheep meat) by selecting the best sheep and allowing them to breed. Other farmers soon followed and the average lamb size grew. The growing food supplies and improved living conditions made England’s population boom, and forcing many into becoming factory workers.
    • Why the Industrial Revolution Began in England
      • England had a large population and was a small island with resources. Industrialization needed these resources, including water power and coal, iron ore, rivers, and harbors.
      • Also, Britain had a growing economy. Businessmen invested in new inventions and the advanced banking system helped people obtain loans to invest in and expand their operations.
      • The growing trade, economy, and climate of progress led to increased demand.
      • Britain’s stability also gave them an advantage as they had not fought battles on British soil for a long time. Their military had fought wars but had almost always succeeded. The Parliament passed laws encouraging business. Britain had all the factors of production, the resources needed to start an Industrial Revolution. These resources include land, labor, and money.
  • Inventions Spur Industrialization

    During this increase in creativity, the inventions revolutionized industry. The textile industry produced clothes from wool, linen, and cotton. This industry was first, allowing cloth merchants to boost profits by speeding up the procedure to produce clothes.

    • Changes in the Textile Industry
      • Several major inventions modernized the cotton industry. In 1733, John Kay created a shuttle which moved on wheels. The shuttle was a piece of wool with yarn attached, doubling the production per day. Because the spinners could not catch up with these weavers, industry leaders offered cash prizes for the invention of a better spinning machine. In 1764, James Hargreaves invented a spinning wheel (named after daughter, spinning jenny) which would let a worker work on 8 threads at a time.
      • These inventions where originally worked by hand. However, Richard Arkwright invented the water frame in 1769, using waterpower from streams to drive the spinning wheels. In 1779, Samuel Crompton combined these to create a spinning mule, which made stronger, finer, and more consistent threads. This invention was run by waterpower and sped up weaving
      • These inventions were bulky and expensive. However, they took the work of spinning and weaving out of the house, into large buildings called factories. These factories used waterpower and were located near rivers and streams.
      • The English textile factory’s cotton came from the American South in the 1790s. Raw cotton has seeds and removing them by hand is hard work. Eli Whitney, an American inventor in 1793 invented a machine to do this. The American cotton production skyrocket from 1.5 million to 85 million in 20 years.
  • Improvements in Transportation

    The advancements in the textile industry spread to other industries. The first such advancement was the steam engine, the result of the search for cheap power. Ever since 1705, coal miners were beginning to use steam-powered pumps to remove water from mine shafts. However, this early model used huge amounts of fuel, making it expensive to run.

    • Watt’s Steam Engine
      • James Watt, a mathematical instrument maker from Scotland finally figured out how to solve the problem. He joined with a businessman named Boulton, an entrepreneur who organized, managed, and took on the risks of business. Watt was paid a salary to come up with a better engine.
    • Water Transportation
      • Steam was also used to move boats. An American inventor, Robert Fulton, ordered a steam engine from Boulton and Watt. He built the steamboat Clermon, which made a successful trip in 1807. The Clermont ferried passengers over the Hudson River.
      • The water transportation also improved in England as a network of canals was created. In the 1800s, over 4250 miles of inland channels lowered the cost of transporting materials.
    • Road Transportation
      • British roads also improved, mostly due to the Scottish engineer John McAdam. In the 1800s, McAdam put large rocks on road beds to allow drainage. On top of that, he put small crushed rock so the traveling wagons would not sink in mud.
      • Private investors formed companies to build roads and operate for profit. These new roads were called turnpikes as they had to stop at tollgates (turnpikes) to pay tolls before traveling any further.
  • The Railway Age Begins

    Steam-driven machines expanded into a steam engine on wheels. A railroad locomotive drove English industry after 1820.

    • Steam-Driven Locomotives
      • An English engineer named Richard Trevithick won a bet of several thousand dollars in 1804. He had managed to haul ten tons of iron over 10 miles of track in a steam-driven locomotive. Other engineers soon built improved version of Trevithick’s locomotive.
      • George Stephenson was one of the first railroad engineers. He built around 20 engines for mine operators in northern England. In 1821, Stephenson started to build an railroad line. It ran 27 mile from coal fields to a port. This railroad opened in 1825, using four locomotives designed by Stephenson.
    • The Liverpool-Manchester Railroad
      • This success spread, and the entrepreneurs wanted to connect the port of Liverpool to the city of Manchester. This track was laid and a competition was held to decide on the best locomotive for the track. They decided on the Rocket, designed by Stephenson.
      • Smoke poured from the Rocket as its twin pistons pumped and drove the front wheels. The locomotive hauled 13 tons at more than 24 miles per hour. The Liverpool-Manchester Railway opened in 1830, an immediate success.
    • Railroads Revolutionize Life in Britain
      • The use of the locomotive spurred industry by giving cheap transportation of materials, created many new jobs, boosted agriculture and fishing by transporting products, and made life easier.
      • They also lured city dwellers to living in the countryside. This brought rapid changes to people’s lives.