• War Affects the World

    The combatants tried to end the stalemate by forming new alliances with other nations outside Europe.

    • The Gallipoli Campaign
      • The Allies began to attack Dardanelles, in the Ottoman Empire. This sea strait led to Constantinople, which was a supply line to Russia. However, this area was held by the Ottoman Turks.
      • This attempt started in early 1915 and was called the Gallipoli campaign. British, Australian, New Zealand, and French troops assaulted the Gallipoli Peninsula on the western side of the strait. The Turkish troops defended the region, forcing them into another stalemate. This turned to trench warfare, which lasted a year before the Allies gave up. The lost nearly 250000 men.
    • Battles in Africa and Asia
      • German colonies were being attacked in both Asia and Africa. Japanese overran Germans in China. They also conquered islands in the Pacific. English and French troops attacked German colonies in Africa, taking 3 of 4.
      • The British and French militaries hired fighting troops and laborers from India, Africa, Senegal, Egypt, Algeria, and Indochina. Some colonial subjects did not want to be involved but others volunteered, hoping to win their freedom.
    • America Joins the Fight
      • In 1917, the war spread to the seas when the German submarines began sinking any ships in British waters, a policy named unrestricted submarine warfare.
      • Germans had tried this policy before, sinking the Lusitania in 1915. This attack killed over 1000 people, and around 129 US citizens. The American public was outraged and the President protested. After 2 more attacks, the Germans stopped attacking neutral and passenger ships.
      • However, the Germans were desperate and returned to this policy in 1917. They knew this might cause war with the US but needed to starve Britain into defeat. This moved the US 1 step closer to war.
      • In 1917, a telegram was intercepted. This telegram, the Zimmerman note, was a proposal to Mexico to help “reconquer” the land they lost to the United States.
      • This note was the last straw and America declared war on the Central Powers. America joined the Allies.
  • War Affects the Home Front

    War had dragged on for three years before the United States joined in. The Great War had affected everyone.

    • Governments Wage Total War
      • World War I was a total war, taking up all the resources of each country. Governments took over the economy, telling factories what to produce (usually munitions/weapons). All citizens were working to produce goods and goods that war used for war were strictly rationed. People could only buy small amounts of the items that were used for war.
      • Governments also limited anti-war efforts and used propaganda to keep up morale and support.
    • Women and the War
      • Women began to play a larger role as they replaced men in factories, offices, and shops. They built weapons, farmed, and operated hospitals. They transported food and weapons to soldiers.
      • Others participated in the war as nurses, helping injured soldiers.
  • The Allies Win the War

    Once the US entered the war, the Allies seemed to have an inevitable victory. However, Russia was on the verge of collapse, giving Germany a hope for victory.

    • Russia Withdraws
      • In 1917, Russian people protested the shortages of food and fuel, forcing Czar Nicholas to step down.
      • The provisional government continued the fighting. The army refused to fight.
      • Another revolution began, led by Lenin. Lenin offered Germany a truce and they signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.
    • The Central Powers Collapse
      • Once Russia withdrew, Germany could focus its war efforts on the West. There, they pushed into France, reaching the Marne River, less than 40 miles from Paris.
      • However, the German military was tired and the newly arrived US troops had an endless supply chain. The Second Battle of the Marne began, and the Allied forces pushed nearly 350 tanks through the German lines. 2 million more American troops arrived and they pushed towards Germany.
      • The Central Powers collapsed, Bulgarians, Turks, and finally, Austria-Hungary. In Germany, soldiers mutinied and Kaiser Wilhelm was forced to step down in 1918. Germany became a republic and a representative signed a armistice with the French commander. WWI ended on November 11, 1918.
  • The Legacy of the War
    • World War I was a unique war, fought with new technologies with the power to bring unprecedented amounts of death
    • Around 8.5 million soldiers died and 21 million were wounded. Civilians also suffered through starvation, disease, and death. This tragedy wiped out an entire generation. The war drained treasuries and destroyed farmland. The estimated cost was around $388 billion, a huge amount. This suffering left a mark on society, reminding people of insecurity and despair.
    • The peace agreement was another legacy, which brought anger and resentment.