Adam Smith – He supported the laissez-faire economy – capitalism. He wrote “The Wealth of Nations”. For him, the ideal economy would be based on people’s self-interest. He argued for the 3 natural laws of capitalism: 3 natural laws of economics: The law of self-interest – People work for their own good; The law of competition – Competition forces people to make a better product; The law of supply and demand – Enough goods at the lowest possible price to meet demand

Almroth Wright – Almroth Wright was a British scientist who worked on medicine and vaccines.

Concert of Europe – The Concert of Europe was born from the Congress of Vienna. This agreement made the great powers look out for each other and stop revolutions. This treaty was for collective security and succeeded in maintaining peace until WWI.

Carlsbad Decrees – The Carlsbad Decrees were a set of decrees in German states. These decrees stopped college students from joining revolutionary “frats”.

Chartists – The Chartist movement demanded suffrage (vote) for all men and annual elections. They also proposed anonymous voting for all men. Finally, they wanted paid positions in Parliament so men from any social class could participate, not just the wealthy.

Charles Fourier – Charles Fourier was a French economist who tried to “cure” the faults of the industrialization with socialism. He believed in giving the factors of production to the public for operation. This would operate for the welfare of all.

Emmeline Pankhurst – Emmeline Pankhurs founded the Women’s Social Political Union in 1903. This group was militant, and she along with other members were arrested and imprisoned many times. While she was jailed, she led hunger strikes, causing the British officials to force feed Sylvia to keep them alive.

Friedrich Engels – Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels created a radical movement called Marxism. Marxism had many socialist traits. Engels argued that there was a constant battle between the haves and have-not’s. He believed that have-not’s would eventually overthrow the have’s as the have-not’s had nothing to lose.

Greek Independence – The Greek independence was supported by the other nations. Many people still respected ancient Greek culture and did not want to see it destroyed. Also, the Christians did not want the Ottoman’s to rule over Greek/Romes as the Ottoman’s were a Muslim Empire.

Guiseppe Garibaldi – Garibaldi was the leader of the south Italian nationalists. Garibaldi led the army, who always wore red shirts. After capturing Sicily, they marched north to unite with the Sardinian ruler, uniting Italy.

John Stuart Mill – Capitalism is bad

Jeremy Bentham – He believed in utilitarianism – people should judge ideas based on usefulness.

Karl Marx – Marx was a German journalist and author of the Communist Manifesto. He suggested that history was plagued by conflicts between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. Therefore, society should adopt communism instead of capitalism.

Robert Owen – Robert Owen was a British factory owner who improved working conditions for his employees. He realized how miserable the working class was and built houses for workers, prohibited children under the age of 10 from working, and provided free schooling. He also traveled to the United States and founded New Harmony, Indiana. He tried to make New Harmony a Utopia.

Schleswig and Holstein

The Factory Act of 1833 – This act made hiring children under the age of 9 illegal. It also limited children’s working hours. This act made child labor more tolerable.

The Combination Act of 1799 – The combination acts banned unions and strikes. However, many workers ignored these laws and joined anyways. These acts were repealed in 1824, and the government began to tolerate unions.

Social Darwinism – In Social Darwinism, the talented deserve the money they make. This environment is competitive and the market distributes the money. However, this would cause poverty in the lower classes.




Essay topics to review:

19th C Reforms in Great Britain

German and Italian Unifications

Reformers and their ideas