• Agricultural Revolution
    • Starts with wealthy landowners
      • Buy up small farmer’s land
      • Experiment & invest
        • Seed drill (1701)
        • Crop rotation (wheat -> turnips -> barley -> clover)
        • Selective breeding (1700), limiting reproduction to best sheep
    • Enclosure
      • Split land up for experimenting
    • Small Farmers Leave
      • Wealthy landowners force farmers out (farmers either move to city or become tenant farmers)
        • Tenant farmers work for the owner
    • Economy and Agriculture
      • Economy depends on agriculture
  • Causes of Industrialization
    • Land, Labor, and Capital
      • 3 factors of production
      • Britain had all three: resources, people, and money
    • Growing Population
      • Lower wages as more labor available
      • Food production must catch up to population
      • Widening gap between rich and poor
    • Natural Resources
      • Britain has: water, iron ore, coal
    • Investment Capital
      • Entrepreneurs invest in machines
        • Produce more
    • Transportation and Communication
      • Phones, steam engine, steam ship, locomotive
    • New Markets
      • People buy new products
    • Government Support
      • Limited involvement
      • Laissez-faire economy (government is involved as little as possible)
  • First Industrial Revolution (1700s)
    • Textile Industry
      • Flying shuttle (weaving)
      • Spinning jenny (spinning)
      • First mechanized industry
    • Steam Power
      • James Watt
      • Transportation of Materials and People
    • Bessemer Process
      • Iron -> Steel
      • Steel is stronger, suitable for heavy machinery
  • Second Industrial Revolution
    • Heavy Machinery
      • Internal Combustion Engine
        • Automobiles
      • Steamships
      • Railways, Airplanes
      • Boosts transportation
        • Easier and cheaper transport of goods
        • More jobs
    • Electricity
      • Lights = longer work hours
    • Assembly Line
      • Every person has role
      • Interchangeable parts and skills
      • Children also work, no school or education
  • Impact of Industrial Revolution
    • Need for Labor -> Need for Technology
    • Domestic System -> Factory
      • Farm -> City
  • Results
    • Migration to urban life
    • Discontent workers with low wages and not enough jobs
    • Growing literacy and education rates
    • Middle & lower classes grow
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