New governments developed in the United States, France, and Latin America. However, a new revolution began to change the way people worked. The Industrial Revolution was the increase of machine-made goods, starting in England in the 1700s. Before this revolution, people made textiles by hand. Now, machines began to take over, and spread from England to Continental Europe and North America.

  • Industrial Revolution Begins in Britain

    Small farms used to cover England’s landscape in 1700s. However, wealthy landowners bought much of the land, using improved farming methods and innovations to start an agricultural revolution.

    • The Agricultural Revolution Paves the Way
      • Wealthy landowners fenced off their land, creating large fields. The landowners had so much land they could experiment with seeding and harvesting methods.
      • This enclosure method encouraged landowners to experiment and also forced small farmers to give up and farming and move to the cities.
      • Jethro Tull was a scientific farmer who noticed that scattering seed across the ground was a waste. He designed a seed drill in 1701 to sow seeds in neat rows at set depths. This resulted in a larger portion of the seeds taking root, increasing yields.
    • Rotating Crops
      • Crop rotation was one of the most effective techniques. This improved on the medieval three-field system – a farmer would plant wheat one year, turnips the next, then barley and clover.
      • Livestock breeders also innovated. In 1700, Robert Bakewell increased his mutton (sheep meat) by selecting the best sheep and allowing them to breed. Other farmers soon followed and the average lamb size grew. The growing food supplies and improved living conditions made England’s population boom, and forcing many into becoming factory workers.
    • Why the Industrial Revolution Began in England
      • England had a large population and was a small island with resources. Industrialization needed these resources, including water power and coal, iron ore, rivers, and harbors.
      • Also, Britain had a growing economy. Businessmen invested in new inventions and the advanced banking system helped people obtain loans to invest in and expand their operations.
      • The growing trade, economy, and climate of progress led to increased demand.
      • Britain’s stability also gave them an advantage as they had not fought battles on British soil for a long time. Their military had fought wars but had almost always succeeded. The Parliament passed laws encouraging business. Britain had all the factors of production, the resources needed to start an Industrial Revolution. These resources include land, labor, and money.
  • Inventions Spur Industrialization

    During this increase in creativity, the inventions revolutionized industry. The textile industry produced clothes from wool, linen, and cotton. This industry was first, allowing cloth merchants to boost profits by speeding up the procedure to produce clothes.

    • Changes in the Textile Industry
      • Several major inventions modernized the cotton industry. In 1733, John Kay created a shuttle which moved on wheels. The shuttle was a piece of wool with yarn attached, doubling the production per day. Because the spinners could not catch up with these weavers, industry leaders offered cash prizes for the invention of a better spinning machine. In 1764, James Hargreaves invented a spinning wheel (named after daughter, spinning jenny) which would let a worker work on 8 threads at a time.
      • These inventions where originally worked by hand. However, Richard Arkwright invented the water frame in 1769, using waterpower from streams to drive the spinning wheels. In 1779, Samuel Crompton combined these to create a spinning mule, which made stronger, finer, and more consistent threads. This invention was run by waterpower and sped up weaving
      • These inventions were bulky and expensive. However, they took the work of spinning and weaving out of the house, into large buildings called factories. These factories used waterpower and were located near rivers and streams.
      • The English textile factory’s cotton came from the American South in the 1790s. Raw cotton has seeds and removing them by hand is hard work. Eli Whitney, an American inventor in 1793 invented a machine to do this. The American cotton production skyrocket from 1.5 million to 85 million in 20 years.
  • Improvements in Transportation

    The advancements in the textile industry spread to other industries. The first such advancement was the steam engine, the result of the search for cheap power. Ever since 1705, coal miners were beginning to use steam-powered pumps to remove water from mine shafts. However, this early model used huge amounts of fuel, making it expensive to run.

    • Watt’s Steam Engine
      • James Watt, a mathematical instrument maker from Scotland finally figured out how to solve the problem. He joined with a businessman named Boulton, an entrepreneur who organized, managed, and took on the risks of business. Watt was paid a salary to come up with a better engine.
    • Water Transportation
      • Steam was also used to move boats. An American inventor, Robert Fulton, ordered a steam engine from Boulton and Watt. He built the steamboat Clermon, which made a successful trip in 1807. The Clermont ferried passengers over the Hudson River.
      • The water transportation also improved in England as a network of canals was created. In the 1800s, over 4250 miles of inland channels lowered the cost of transporting materials.
    • Road Transportation
      • British roads also improved, mostly due to the Scottish engineer John McAdam. In the 1800s, McAdam put large rocks on road beds to allow drainage. On top of that, he put small crushed rock so the traveling wagons would not sink in mud.
      • Private investors formed companies to build roads and operate for profit. These new roads were called turnpikes as they had to stop at tollgates (turnpikes) to pay tolls before traveling any further.
  • The Railway Age Begins

    Steam-driven machines expanded into a steam engine on wheels. A railroad locomotive drove English industry after 1820.

    • Steam-Driven Locomotives
      • An English engineer named Richard Trevithick won a bet of several thousand dollars in 1804. He had managed to haul ten tons of iron over 10 miles of track in a steam-driven locomotive. Other engineers soon built improved version of Trevithick’s locomotive.
      • George Stephenson was one of the first railroad engineers. He built around 20 engines for mine operators in northern England. In 1821, Stephenson started to build an railroad line. It ran 27 mile from coal fields to a port. This railroad opened in 1825, using four locomotives designed by Stephenson.
    • The Liverpool-Manchester Railroad
      • This success spread, and the entrepreneurs wanted to connect the port of Liverpool to the city of Manchester. This track was laid and a competition was held to decide on the best locomotive for the track. They decided on the Rocket, designed by Stephenson.
      • Smoke poured from the Rocket as its twin pistons pumped and drove the front wheels. The locomotive hauled 13 tons at more than 24 miles per hour. The Liverpool-Manchester Railway opened in 1830, an immediate success.
    • Railroads Revolutionize Life in Britain
      • The use of the locomotive spurred industry by giving cheap transportation of materials, created many new jobs, boosted agriculture and fishing by transporting products, and made life easier.
      • They also lured city dwellers to living in the countryside. This brought rapid changes to people’s lives.